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The Forging Process

   Forging is the oldest of the metalworking processes. The forging process consists of hammering or pressing metal in to a desired shape. This can be done with or without dies. Parts can be forged "hot" (the metal is heated to just below the melting point) or "cold" (the metal is at 1/3 the melting point temperature). In today's forging industry most parts are hot forged.


Forge Die

Forging Die

   When metal is hot, it is in a soft and pliable condition allowing it to be easily formed   under pressure without breaking. This process is called forging.


Metal is strongest in the direction of its grain flow. Machining cuts through the grain, thereby weakening the metal. Forging causes the grain to flow in the shape of the part.                                    

Therefore, forgings are stronger than machined parts. Also, since the shape of the part is created by pressure, not cutting, much less metal is lost in the process. This means that parts with complex shapes can be formed and mass produced by forging more economically than by machining.
Forged Part with Flash

Forged part with flash

Forged Part

Finished Part


Forged parts have greater strength due the re-alignment of the grain pattern.

Grain Comparison

Forged Grain Pattern






Drop Forging 

Drop forging is a mass production technique which hammers the metal between two dies. Half of the die is attached to the hammer (upper section) and half to the anvil (lower section). The hot metal is placed in the lower half of the die and struck one on more times with the upper die. This forces the metal to flow in all directions, filling the die cavity. Excess metal squeezed out between the die faces is called flash or flashing. After the forging is completed the flash is cut off in another press with a trimming die.

Drop forging is  suitable for producing small and medium size objects, such as wrenches, gear blanks, machine parts, fasteners, engine parts, etc.


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